Varicose veins are the dominant disease of the superficial venous system. Varicose veins include dilated, convoluted, and prominent superficial veins of the lower extremities. The disease is not severe and is not life-threatening, but it can be associated with a significant frequency of pain in the lower extremities. Varicose veins represent a significant socio-medical problem due to their high frequency and limiting the working capacity of patients.


The etiology of varicose veins has not yet been fully investigated. The fact that man is the only living being on earth that has an upright posture and bipedal movement, as well as that he only suffers from varicose veins (varicose veins do not occur in four-legged animals). With their formation, varicose veins make it difficult to return venous blood to deep veins, venous pathways and increase venous pressure (chronic venous insufficiency) in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, accompanied by characteristic symptoms and signs. Symptoms of varicose veins include a feeling of heaviness and tension in the legs at the end of the day or after prolonged standing, swelling in the ankle area, itchy skin, and painful muscle cramps, which can be withdrawn during the night or by lifting the extremities. Varicose veins are accompanied by significant aesthetic problems, especially in women.